June 10 dawns with a partially eclipsed Sun

Annular Eclipse of the Sun. Image Attribution: Smrgeog, CC BY-SA 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

An annular eclipse of the sun will take place June 10 and it will be underway at sunrise. Unfortunately, even with clear skies we will not see the “ring of fire” that is the namesake look of this type of eclipse. In fact, no place in the United States will see the complete circle, or annulus, of Sun around Moon. So don’t feel left out.

In our area, sunrise will be at 5:55 AM (EDT) with the eclipse already at its maximum for us. The eclipse ends at 6:35 AM as Moon completes its passage across Sun.

A total eclipse of the sun takes place when Earth’s Moon, at normal orbital distances, covers the solar disk completely and blocks all but the glowing corona from view. An annular eclipse takes place when Moon is at higher points in its orbit when it passes between Earth and Sun, too distant and small to form a perfect cover, allowing a brilliant ring of our star to shine.

What we may see at dawn and diminishing thereafter, is a partial solar eclipse — looking a bit like the chomping character from the classic PAC-MAN video game. Much of the solar disk will be visible but the curved edge of Moon will take a bite out of one side.

How can you watch the eclipse? With great care!

Partial Eclipse of the Sun, August 21, 2017 — this image rotated to resemble what viewers might see at dawn, June 10, 2021. Photo by James Guilford

How can you watch the eclipse? With great care! At no time during our partial solar eclipse will it be safe to watch the event without vision protection. If you have eclipse glasses from a recent solar eclipse, those should be just fine — just make sure there are no pinholes or other damage to the plastic film “lenses”! You can check for damage by holding the eclipse viewer at arm’s length and looking at a bright lightbulb. If you see any dots of light through the viewer film, throw those glasses out!

Do NOT look at the sun through sunglasses, even multiple sets of sunglasses, or photo negatives, Compact Discs, or anything other than certified eclipse viewing equipment! Pinhole and other projection techniques can be used safely since the viewer is looking at a projection and not the sun itself. Five Ways to View the Solar Eclipse

“The Sun can be viewed safely with the naked eye only during the few brief seconds or minutes of a total solar eclipse. Partial eclipses, annular eclipses, and the partial phases of total eclipses are never safe to watch without taking special precautions. Even when 99% of the Sun’s surface is obscured during the partial phases of a total eclipse, the remaining photospheric crescent is intensely bright and cannot be viewed safely without eye protection [Chou, 1981; Marsh, 1982]. Do not attempt to observe the partial or annular phases of any eclipse with the naked eye. Failure to use appropriate filtration may result in permanent eye damage or blindness!” — NASA: Eye Safety During Solar Eclipses

Penumbral lunar eclipse coming November 30

There will be a lunar eclipse the morning of November 30, 2020 but you may not want to get out of a warm bed to view it — it will be fairly “weak.” This month’s eclipse, viewable in its entirely from Northern Ohio (given clear skies) is of the penumbral variety and will not display the eerie colors that make total lunar eclipses so exciting.

Penumbral Lunar Eclipse. NASA Solar and Earth images, illustration by James Guilford.
A penumbral lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes through the thin outer shadow — penumbra — Earth casts out into space.

A penumbral lunar eclipse occurs when the Full Moon passes through the shady outer circle — the penumbra — of Earth’s shadow streaming out into space. Careful observers will note how most of Moon dims slightly with a sliver of a brighter southern edge and a darker northern area. During a total lunar eclipse, the Full Moon passes fully through the darkest portion of Earth’s shadow, the umbra, and is illuminated by the colors of the globe’s sunrises and sunsets. Again, that won’t happen this time.

Penumbral Lunar Eclipse – November 30, 2020. Credit: F. Espenak, NASA’s GSFC eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse.html

Most of Monday’s event is quite subtle and takes a long time, many won’t even notice the difference. If you want to see this eclipse at its best, even photogenic, view it only around maximum. The penumbral eclipse begins [P1] at 2:32 AM, reaches its Greatest eclipse (you may note northern darkening) at 4:52 AM, and the event ends [P4] at 6:53 AM when Moon completes its emergence from Earth’s shade.

The next total lunar eclipse — the type that features coppery-red colors at its peak — will take place May 26, 2021; unfortunately, that event will reach its maximum as Moon sets locally. The next total lunar eclipse that we might see in its entirety will take place May 16, 2022 and that should be a doozie!

Moon and Mars Pair Up Night of October 2

Earth’s Moon and Planet Mars will be just over one degree apart at 12:18 AM EDT, Saturday, October 3, as viewed from the Hiram, Ohio area. Credit: Sky Safari/James Guilford

The night of October 2 – 3 will see a brilliant pairing of lights, a conjunction, in our night sky. Earth’s Moon and planet Mars will shine close together — only a smidgen over a degree apart — in the southeast. As viewed from the Hiram, Ohio area, Moon and Mars will be nearest each other at 12:18 AM EDT. Don’t worry if you can’t stay up, the two will be a beautiful pair to behold all night long.

Our Moon will be a day past Full and in its Waning Gibbous phase, so it will be round and bright. Mars, while too distant to be seen as a disc by the unaided eye, is nearing an unusually close approach to Earth during its opposition and will shine like a coppery star. Mars will be nearest to Earth, at 62 million kilometers (38,525,014 miles) distant, on October 6 and it won’t be that close again until 2035.

Opposition refers to a time in their orbits when Mars (or another planet) is opposite the Earth from the Sun — around that time is when the two bodies, on concentric racetrack orbits around the Sun, pass each other and are at their closest and brightest.

July Fourth weekend brought sky events great and small

Little difference can be seen between an earlier stage and the maximum eclipse state of the July 4 - 5, 2020 penumbral lunar eclipse. Photos by James Guilford.
Little difference can be seen between an earlier stage and the maximum eclipse state of the July 4 – 5, 2020 penumbral lunar eclipse. The images were made with identical camera and Photoshop settings. Photos by James Guilford.

There was much ballyhoo surrounding the penumbral lunar eclipse that would take place the night of July 4 – 5, 2020. We joined in just to explain a little about what was going on and what might be expected. Penumbral lunar eclipses take place when the Moon passes through the thin outer shadow Earth casts out into space; they are often very subtle, slight, and in this case, nearly undetectable. Just witness the photo above that shows the Full Buck Moon about one-half hour before maximum eclipse and the Moon at maximum. Casual observers saw no change across the entire event and it’s hard for us to see the difference even in photos that can be made to emphasize features! So we apologize if you waited up to see what we called the  “subtle” eclipse but, if you did, you saw a beautiful Full Moon!

Then there was the much-less-promoted Sunday night, July 5, conjunction of Earth’s Moon, with planets Jupiter and Saturn… a lovely sight! We went out to photograph it an hour after moonrise and spied a brilliant orange Moon lighting up the scattered clouds with Jupiter shining through and Saturn making a somewhat dimmer appearance. A conjunction is when two or more celestial objects appear close together in our skies — emphasis on appear since Moon, Jupiter, and Saturn are separated by hundreds of millions of miles. We were surprised to see, in the photo below, that even Jupiter’s four Galilean Moons can be seen. The stars and planets appear oblong or as short streaks due to Earth’s rotation and the length of the camera exposure.

Conjunction of Earth's Moon, with planets Jupiter (bright dot above), and Saturn (less bright dot to the left at the edge of a cloud), the night of July 5, 2020. Photo by James Guilford.
Conjunction of Earth’s Moon, with planets Jupiter (bright dot above), and Saturn (less bright dot to the left at the edge of a cloud), the night of July 5, 2020. Photo by James Guilford.

Subtle lunar eclipse July 4 – 5

Penumbral Lunar Eclipse. NASA Solar and Earth images, illustration by James Guilford.
A penumbral lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes through the thin outer shadow — penumbra — Earth casts out into space.

We’re fortunate that the night of July 4 is expected to be clear, and not just for the traditional booms and flashes of celebratory fireworks. Our Moon is getting in on the act, albeit with a much more subtle display in the form of a penumbral eclipse. The eclipse will take place from 11:07 PM to 1:52 AM EDT with maximum eclipse at 12:31 AM July 5.

We say subtle because, unlike a total lunar eclipse, Earth’s Moon will not change to reddish/coppery colors. The Moon will instead become oddly shadowed for a Full Moon, as it enters the outer fringes of Earth’s shadow in space — the penumbra. Only the “top” portion of Luna will pass through the penumbra making this eclipse especially slight. Still, it’s worth a look and it won’t be at a particularly late hour. A deeper penumbral lunar eclipse will take place the night of November 30, 2020.

Illustration of Earth's Umbra and Penumbra with Moon Positioned for Penumbral Eclipse.
Earth’s shadow streams into space away from the Sun. The shadow has a partially-shaded outer portion, and a deep inner cone. Moon is eclipsed when it enters Earth’s shadow. Moon is eclipsed when it passes through Earth’s shadow. Credit: SkySafari / J. Guilford

While it’s possible to view this eclipse with the unaided eye, binoculars will provide an enhanced view as would a small telescope.

Penumbral Shadow on Earth’s Moon at Maximum Eclipse. July 5, 2020 at 12:31 AM EDT. Simulation via SkySafari.

And just in case there’s any confusion, lunar eclipses are perfectly safe to view and photograph — it’s moonlight — so nothing to worry about there.

If you shoot any photos or have impressions to share with us, you can do so via our Twitter — @StephensObs

Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of July 4 – 5, 2020. Credit: NASA

NASA Eclipse Page available here: Penumbral Lunar Eclipse of July 4 – 5, 2020.

We appreciate you, Luna

Photo: First Quarter Moon, October 5, 2019.
Our First-Quarter Moon on International Observe the Moon Night, as seen through the Stephens telescope at 9:04 PM EDT. iPhone SE at eyepiece.

 

Our October 5 Open Night was the local event of the International Observe the Moon Night — an annual occurrence meant that encourages observation, appreciation, and understanding of our Moon and its connection to planetary science and exploration. Over the course of the night at Stephens Memorial Observatory some 34 enthusiastic and inquisitive visitors attended and were treated to beautiful and unusual views of Earth’s Moon and planet Saturn.

Unusual? The earliest visitors arrived just as the telescope was set to go … with the sky still bright with twilight. The Moon appeared light and against a power-blue sky background instead of the usual darkness of space. Saturn, invisible to the eye in the bright sky, was also viewed through the telescope in surprising detail.

 

Zooming in on the previous image: That dot in the center of dark-floored crater Alphonsus is its central peak. Over the course of two hours sun rose over that pinnacle making it brighter, and other features began to emerge as we watched. Alphonsus slightly overlaps the crater Ptolemaeus.

After darkness fell enthusiastic visitors took turns looking at a crater and watching a mountain peak become illuminated at sunrise on the Moon! It was a fine night appreciating a sight too often ignored: the wonder of Luna, our nearest neighbor in space.

October 5: International Observe the Moon Night, Saturn Bonus!

Graphic: International Observe the Moon Night - 2019
Save the Date! International Observe the Moon Night will take place on October 5th 2019.

Stephens Memorial Observatory of Hiram College will host a Public Night Saturday, October 5, from 7:00 to 9:00 p.m. Earth’s Moon will be featured as our local participation in International Observe the Moon Night — a worldwide appreciation of Earth’s nearest neighbor in space. As an exciting bonus, planet Saturn will float near Moon in our skies and will also be observed. Other objects may also be viewed. Given good viewing conditions the Observatory’s 1901 vintage telescope delivers outstanding detail of the Moon and impressive views of Saturn with its distinctive rings.

An interesting activity any time of year is to make note of the daily changes we see in the phases of Moon. Open the PDF to print a handy guide and journal for lunar observation: Moon-Observation_Journal.

Cloudy skies at the scheduled starting time cancel the event in which case, the observatory will not open. No reservations are required and there is no admission fee for observatory public nights.

The Observatory is located on Wakefield Road (Rt. 82) less than a quarter of a mile west of Route 700 in Hiram. There is no parking at the Observatory. Visitors may park on permissible side streets near the Post Office, a short distance east of the observatory.

Updates on programming are available via the Observatory’s Twitter feed: @StephensObs or its website: StephensObservatory.org.

Saturday, September 14 Public Night

Image: Saturn and Moons
Simulated View: Saturn and Moons, September 14, 2019 at 9:30 PM EDT. Image via Gas Giants

 

UPDATE: Thanks to the 29 visitors, of a wide variety of ages, who came out Saturday night to share the view with us. Early arrivals got good views of Saturn. In the middle of our evening our guests saw Saturn under improving conditions and the rising Moon as it cleared neighboring trees. Those who visited or stayed late viewed the Full Harvest Moon (sometimes through tree leaves). Our Moon, though fascinating to view through our telescope even when Full or nearly so, created huge amounts of natural light “pollution” as it illuminated atmospheric haze and thin clouds — we were unable to see the Great Andromeda Galaxy or the M15 star cluster. The Moon got tangled in trees again as it arced higher into the sky. Our final visitors of the evening, however, were rewarded for their patience with views of the Perseus Double Cluster after it cleared trees. We love trees but not so close to the observatory!

Stephens Memorial Observatory of Hiram College will host a Public Night Saturday, September 14, from 9:00 to 11:00 PM. On the observing list are: Earth’s Moon, Saturn, the Messier 15 star cluster, and, if sky conditions permit, the Andromeda Galaxy, and Perseus Double star cluster. Given good viewing conditions the Observatory’s 1901 vintage telescope delivers outstanding detail of the Moon and impressive views of Saturn and distinctive rings.

Cloudy skies at the scheduled starting time cancel the event in which case, the observatory will not open. No reservations are required and there is no admission fee for observatory public nights.

The Observatory is located on Wakefield Road (Rt. 82) less than a quarter of a mile west of Route 700 in Hiram. There is no parking at the Observatory. Visitors may park on permissible side streets near the Post Office, a short distance east of the observatory.

Updates on programming are available via the Observatory’s Twitter feed: @StephensObs or its website: StephensObservatory.org.

August 10 Open Night: Saturn and the Moon

Saturn and Moons, July 10, 2019. Simulation via Gas Giants.

 

Stephens Memorial Observatory of Hiram College will host a Public Night Saturday, August 10, from 9:00 to 11:00 PM. On the observing list are two Stephens favorites: Earth’s Moon, and the Ringed World – Saturn! Other objects of interest may also be viewed using the Observatory’s 1901 vintage telescope. Given good viewing conditions the telescope delivers outstanding detail of the Moon and impressive views of Saturn and distinctive rings.

Cloudy skies at the scheduled starting time cancel the event in which case, the observatory will not open. No reservations are required and there is no admission fee for observatory public nights.

The Observatory is located on Wakefield Road (Rt. 82) less than a quarter of a mile west of Route 700 in Hiram. There is no parking at the Observatory. Visitors may park on permissible side streets near the Post Office, a short distance east of the observatory.

Updates on programming are available via the Observatory’s Twitter feed: @StephensObs or its website: StephensObservatory.org.

July 13: Two favorite sights… The Moon and Jupiter

Jupiter and its Galilean Moons as they will appear the night of July 13, 2019. Labels for Ganymede and Io overlap. Simulation via "Gas Giants".
Jupiter and its Galilean Moons as they will appear the night of July 13, 2019. Labels for Ganymede and Io overlap. Simulation via “Gas Giants”.

 

WRAP-UP: We played peek-a-boo through clouds with Moon and Jupiter all evening. When they first became visible from behind neighboring trees, viewing of our Moon and the planet was fair to poor. As time passed and the atmosphere settled down, seeing became better and late visitors were treated to excellent views of Moon and fair to good views of Jupiter with his four Galilean Moons and even the Great Red Spot (GRS). In fact, just before we closed for the night, the GRS showed not just as a thickening in the Southern Equatorial Band but as a definite shape with red coloration! Saturday’s was not the best view we’ve had of Jupiter but in the end, it was pretty good. Thanks to the 34 visitors who came out on a muggy and buggy night to enjoy the sights!

Stephens Memorial Observatory of Hiram College will host a Public Night Saturday, July 13, from 9:30 to 11:00 PM. On the observing list are two Stephens favorites: Earth’s Moon, and planet Jupiter with its moons. Other objects of interest may also be viewed using the Observatory’s 1901 vintage telescope. Given good viewing conditions, organizers say, the telescope delivers outstanding detail of the Moon and impressive views of Jupiter including, when it’s in position as it will be July 13, the planet’s Great Red Spot feature.

Organizers hope for clear skies since recent weather conditions have made scheduled observing impossible. Cloudy skies at the scheduled starting time cancel the event in which case, the observatory will not open. No reservations are required and there is no admission fee for observatory public nights.

The Observatory is located on Wakefield Road (Rt. 82) less than a quarter of a mile west of Route 700 in Hiram. There is no parking at the Observatory. Visitors may park on permissible side streets near the Post Office, a short distance east of the observatory.

Updates on programming are available via the Observatory’s Twitter feed: @StephensObs or its website: StephensObservatory.org.